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Thermal Management Materials for New Energy Vehicle Power Batteries

Aug 17,2023

Power battery thermal management is an important technology in the field of new energy vehicles, its role is to ensure that the temperature of the power battery can be within a safe range during the use of the vehicle, and improve the battery life and service life, thermal management materials are the technical support to achieve this goal. The following is an introduction to you: what thermal management materials are specifically needed for new energy vehicle power batteries.

A  Thermally conductive materials

Heat conductive materials play a key role in the thermal management of power batteries, at present, power batteries are often used: heat conduction paste, heat conduction sheet two types of heat conduction materials.

The thermal conductivity of heat conduction paste is generally in the range of 1-8 W/mK, which is a thermal conductive material that transfers heat from the high temperature area to the low temperature area, and is usually used for the contact surface of the battery and the heat sink. The preparation of heat conduction paste can use diamond particles, silicon nitride and other thermal conductive particles as a carrier, and the theat conduction paste can fill fine voids and cracks, because this advantage is widely used in the thermal management of power batteries.

The heat conduction sheet is usually made of copper or aluminum, and the thermal conductivity is often about 200 W/mK, which can not only evenly transfer heat from the surface of the battery to the nearby radiator, but also evenly cool the heat of the radiator and the surface of the battery, and at the same time improve the adsorption of the radiator to the battery and avoid the radiator falling off in the vibration state.

B  Thermal barrier materials

Thermal barrier material is a material that can slow down the flow of heat, and the thermal conductivity is often in the range of 0.2-0.35 W/mK, which has the characteristics of easy processing and molding.It is often used inside the battery module and installed between the battery cell and the radiator to reduce the temperature gradient, so as to reduce the surface temperature of the battery and ensure the safety of the battery.

Thermal barrier materials include: insulating thermal insulation materials and composite thermal insulation materials.The main raw materials of insulation materials are glass fiber, ceramics, etc., which are often installed between the battery cell and the radiator to reduce the surface temperature of the battery.Composite thermal insulation materials are usually composed of a variety of performance materials, such as nano-silica and polymers, its role is to block the conduction between heat flow and current, the material has high strength and durability, so it is widely used.

C  Phase change materials

Phase change material is a kind of material that can absorb and release a large amount of heat energy, the melting point is usually very stable, when the charge reaches a certain temperature, the phase change material can absorb a large amount of heat energy, can reduce the peak of the surface temperature during the battery charging and discharging, maintain the stable state of the battery surface temperature, and then improve the battery life, so it is also widely used in power battery thermal management.

Phase change materials are divided into organic phase change materials and inorganic phase change materials, organic phase change materials are often used in the low temperature range, and the degree of purity is high, but the speed of heat absorption and heat release is relatively slow. However, inorganic phase change materials absorb and release heat faster, but they are easy to melt at high temperatures and toxic problems also limit their application range.

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